International Court of Justice
President: Fernanda Valentina Martínez Reyes
Chair: Elías Dávila Martínez, María Camila Hernández Castillo, Jeremías Pérez Caballero y Andrea Lizet Martínez Olvera
Affair A) Alleged Violations of the 1955 Treaty of Amity, Economic Relations, and Consular Rights (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America)
Affair B) Alleged Violations of Sovereign Rights and Maritime Spaces in the Caribbean Sea (Nicaragua v. Colombia)
Court's outline and faculties
The International Court of Justice, hereafter known as ICJ, is the prime judicial instrument of the United Nations which solves legal matters among States under international law and gives advisory opinions on legal affairs submitted to it by authorized United Nations main bodies and specialized agencies. It was established by the Charter of the United Nations in 1945 in The Hague, Kingdom of the Netherlands. The World Court, as it is also known, started work in 1946 as the successor of the Permanent Court of International Justice; it operates under the ICJ Statute, part of the UN Charter adopted by all 193 members of the United Nations. Through 15 judges and two agents from across the globe, the ICJ represents the main legal systems of the world by fairly and impartially settling global disputes, and contributing to the advancement of the rule of law, sovereign equality, and peaceful societies.
Jurisdiction and Faculties:
The first principal function of the Court is to settle contentious cases in accordance with its statute and rules of nations; in these intercontinental legal disputes, the ICJ produces binding rulings between the States that have agreed to submit to its judgment and jurisdiction. The second is to give advisory opinions on properly submitted questions of international law, at the request of the General Assembly, the Security Council, or other United Nations main bodies and specialized agencies. Furthermore, the Court may also clarify and redefine the rules of nations, apply economic prohibitions, request the withdrawal of troops, or even decline requests submitted by States, as deemed appropriate, in order to reach an agreement between nations. Therewith, the ICJ settles judgment upon global disputes of legal nature concerning matters provided in the UN Charter or current conventions, in particular territorial or maritime sovereignty, right of asylum, nationality or economic rights and violation of the international humanitarian right.